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Sociology and Anthropology Programme

The major in Sociology and Anthropology studies the behavior and conduct of people and groups in their social context. That exploration of what it means to be human ranges from the study of culture and social relations, to languages, to music, art and architecture, and to vestiges of human habitation. Providing us with different ways of understanding human behavior, the major will allow students to develop the analytical skills necessary to look more closely at particular behaviors and events. How, for example, might we explain the emergence of new rituals, such as internet-based marriage, or birthday parties? How do we understand the behavior of communities that might seem counter-productive or even abhorrent to us, such as inter-caste strife or the celebration of corrupt politicians? How might we interpret India’s wealth of statistical results which reveal trends we can’t easily explain, like the sharp decline in the participation of women in the labour market? It considers such fascinating questions as how peoples’ behavior changes over time, how people move about the world, why and how people from distant parts of the world and dissimilar cultures are different and the same, how the human species has evolved over millions of years, and how individuals understand and operate successfully in distinct cultural settings. Each of the fields teaches distinctive skills, such as applying theories, employing research methodologies, formulating and testing hypotheses, and developing extensive sets of data.


At Ashoka, we hope to explain such phenomena on their own terms, drawing on the best traditions of both sociology and anthropology, equipping students with the ability to observe, question, explain and position such explanations in wider theoretical frameworks, using a toolbox which incorporates surveys, ethnography, historical research and sound and video records. Uniquely at Ashoka, the major orients students across a wide variety of foundation courses which locate it in relation to other disciplines, such as economics, history and psychology. The University’s commitment to experience assures the ready and continuous application of learning to the world of work and to contemporary and immediate contexts.

Foundation Courses

Social and Political Formations

Faculty: Ravindran Sriramachandran

The course introduces students to two of the most important concepts that frame the study of social sciences: the political and the social. What does it mean to be political? What is the difference between thinking politically and doing politics? What do we mean by social and political formations? How and why do these formations emerge? Are they similar and static across time and space? If not, then what explains their variation? What are some of the ways in which these issues have been studied? Importantly, how do we begin to understand these diverse and dense set of ideas

Core Courses

Introduction to Social Anthropology
Social anthropology is the comparative study of human behavior in its social context. Societies and peoples around the world vary enormously in their conduct and ideas, and the study of these variations – and the common humanity which underlies them and renders them intelligible – lies at the heart of social anthropology. Drawing on selected ethnography and ethnographic film, this course introduces students to the range of questions which anthropologists have sought to answer, and to the particular explanatory power of its method of prolonged ‘participant observation’ of distant cultures as a means to better understand ourselves.


Anthropological theory
What is society? In what way is it more than the sum of its parts, individuals or persons? Does society shape individuals in order to achieve stability for the whole? Or is social conduct and thought revealing of underlying structures in our unconscious? Or is such conduct and thought instead led by lived experience, the practice and habit of everyday life? This course will take us through the foundational theory of anthropology: functionalism and its roots in evolutionism (Boas, Durkheim, Malinowski), to structural-functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown, Mauss, Fortes), to structuralism (Levi-Strauss, de Saussure), to post-structuralism in its myriad forms (Bourdieu, Ortner, Sahlins, Jacobsen). Each topic will be taught in the context of ethnographic examples and of contemporary theorists working with these foundations.


Ritual & Religion
What is religion? How does it create meaning and explanation? Why is it such an important force in our lives? With their detailed studies of ritual and religious practice, anthropologists have shown how religion is a special way of formulating order in the social world and how such formulations are publicly legitimated and reiterated in ritual. The course will draw on ethnographic material from a range of world religions to engage in debates about magic, (ir)rationality, witchcraft, shamanism, sacrifice, rites of passage and religion’s relationship with science.


Kinship, Caste & Community
This course explores the ways in which people in different societies conceptualise and live out relatedness, in their families, wider kin and non-kin groups. Drawing on ethnography from South Asia and elsewhere, we explore the different forms of relatedness as expressed through kinship, caste and community, highlighting their link to ideas of personhood, to gender, and to relations of ownership and inheritance. We explore the way in which kinship and caste both connect and divide: while on the one hand, shared identity and solidarity is created, on the other, inequality and exploitation is instituted.


Economy & Society
Anthropologists have drawn on the study of non-industrial and small-scale communities to understand the nature of the economy and its relation to wider society. This comparative understanding has positioned them to comment critically on the categories and assumptions inherent in Western economic thought. The course will draw on theory and case studies from anthropology, sociology and political economy to cover topics such as market and non-market exchange, money, the nature of value, norms and morality in commercial society, formal versus substantive meanings of the economic, transactions and game theory, and the social regulation of the economy.


Politics, Law and the State: Perspectives from Anthropology & Sociology
This course is concerned with the nature of power, the relation between state and society and the challenges and limits to political authority. Drawing on recent and contemporary work of sociologists (Thomson, Lukes, Foucault, Chatterjee, Gai, Kaviraj, Hall, Giddens) and anthropologists (Hansen, Fuller, Benei, Gupta, Brass, Tambiah), the course will explore topics such as:- the origin of law in custom; the corporation and other legal fictions; conflict and static versus dynamic political systems; institutions and their relation with ideology; political symbols and techniques of legitimation; the critique of political order in favour of individual agency; corruption, and everyday experiences of the state in India and elsewhere.


Social Change and Development
This course introduces students to the ideas of development which have informed government policy and civil society in India and the developing world since Independence. It locates development discourse in an Indian context, exploring the assumptions and world views which underlie the support to economic growth and ‘trickle down’, dependency theory and notions of sustainability, empowerment, participation and radical alternatives to market liberalism. Using case studies of policies and programmes, the course will explore the gap between plan and actual implementation. It asks how and why the gap is repeatedly reproduced and an understanding of ‘real change’ continues to elude us.


Anthropology of India
The aim of the course is twofold. First, to introduce students to some of the classical themes of Indian anthropology and to their contemporary relevance. Second, to equip students with the ability to observe contemporary social phenomenon – critically and with detachment – to make sense of the rapidly changing appearance of Indian society. Among the themes covered will be:- caste and its relation to class, religion and secularism, state-society relations and the politics of identity, gender and sexual violence, environmentalism and ideas of indigeneity, urbanization and cultural change, corporate activism and responsibility, and notions of schooling, knowledge and status.


Capitalism and Industry
The course will offer the chance both to examine and interrogate the founding theories of capitalism and industrialization, and to explore some of the most exciting and pertinent ethnographies of our time: those documenting everyday conduct and thought at the heart of capitalist milieus in India and the West. Topics will include:- time and discipline in industrial societies, the question of whether India has a working class, the nature of exploitation and progressive alienation, industrial migration, the trading of stocks and currencies on global markets, and consumption and shopping.


Agrarian Studies
Agrarian studies is the interdisciplinary exploration of the modern transformation of the countryside across the world. It tries to understand the intrusive thrusts of nation-state formation, urban industrial production, and the rationalization of belief into the most distant agrarian regions. It insists that people everywhere have confronted those forces with their particular histories and distinctive, local configurations of environment, society and culture. The course approach is global, while emphasis is given to the Indian context of agrarian systems, land tenure and reform, social change in the village and peasant movements.


Sociology of Post-Industrial Societies
How do we observe, analyze, apprehend society when it is spatially dispersed and virtual, residing in networks and new forms of affinity? To what extent does technology shape society, or is it rather than technology is driven by social needs which shape and reshape it? Demonstrating how and why contemporary social theory has converged on common questions, across the disciplines (including philosophy, sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, ecology, history), the course will explore topics such as:- the city and urbanity, globalization, science and technology, environmentalism and the case for analysis of the world as a ‘system’ in which different parts are positioned in relation to a dominant ‘core’.


Qualitative research methods
The course has two parts. First, it introduces students to some of the questions and debates around epistemology in social science. How does social scientific knowledge compare with scientific? How does one honour cultural difference when its description must be rendered in one’s own language? Can one claim to be an objective observer ineffective of and unaffected by the phenomenon being observed? Second, it provides the opportunity to explore and test out a variety of field methods and to understand their relative strengths, including participant observation, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, use of historical sources, and sound and visual recordings.


Second, it provides the opportunity to explore and test out a variety of field methods and to understand their relative strengths, including participant observation, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, use of historical sources, and sound and visual recordings.

Major Requirement

As with other majors, the Anthropology and Sociology major will require 12 courses. Most classes will meet twice a week for an hour and a half each. Classes will be supplemented by weekly hour-long sessions with teaching assistants, making up a total of four hours of class time per course per week. The grid below captures one possible trajectory through the Anthropology and Sociology major.

Critical Thinking Seminars

Studying Indian Culture and Society

South Asia provides us with an archive that is exceptionally useful for tracking the changes that colonialism ushers in and changes in the field of studying culture because of a combination of many factors. Every major phase in the development of anthropology and every anthropological theory has had its lively encounter and engagement in and through South Asian ethnographies.  As a result, in reading a range of representative ethnographies of South Asia, we will also discuss the evolution and range of anthropological theory more generally.

Taught by: Ravindran Sriramachandran

Sample Curriculum Structure



Semester I Semester II Semester III Semester IV Semester V Semester VI
Intro to Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Seminar I Critical Thinking Seminar II Great Books Qualitative Research Methods Trends in World History
Social and Political Formations Introduction to Logical Reasoning Philosophy and Psychology Anthropological Theory Kinship, Caste and Community Social Change and Development
Foundations of Economic Reasoning Literature and the World Indian Civilizations Ritual and Religion Anthropology of India Agrarian Studies
Introduction to Social Anthropology Economy and Society in India Principles of Science Politics, State and Law Capitalism and Industry Sociology of Post-Industrial Societies


ASP and The Advanced Major in Sociology and Anthropology
  • In their third year, SOA Majors will be invited to consider continuing on for a fourth year at Ashoka to complete an Advanced Major in Sociology and Anthropology under the Ashoka Scholars Programme (ASP)
  • In addition to running an intensive programme of supervised research for our Advanced Majors, the Department also welcomes students who wish to stay on for a fourth year at Ashoka and utilise the ASP to complete a Concentration, Minor or Second Major Equivalent in Sociology and Anthropology, as well as those fourth years keen to expand their intellectual exploration through our course offerings outside a formal pathway.
  • The Advanced Major in Sociology and Anthropology will give students an opportunity to pursue an independent, original and closely supervised research project, which will culminate in an undergraduate thesis.
  • The course, Anthropology’s Methods will help prospective Advanced Majors to develop research proposals and plans. Proposals must be approved by the Department and be matched with a Faculty Advisor before the student can pursue the Advanced Major
  • Fieldwork will generally be conducted over the summer between semesters 6 & 7 and may continue into semester 7.
  • While each student will pursue their individual research work under the guidance of a faculty advisor, all Advanced Majors will participate as a group in Monsoon and Spring Thesis Workshops, each for 4 credits. These will be intensive weekly sessions facilitated by different members of the faculty and will focus on critical aspects of the research process: framing questions, fieldwork methods, data analysis, working on annotated bibliographies, developing anthropological arguments, and ethnographic writing. Students will make regular presentations and share their writing with each other.
  • The final thesis will be between 10,000-15,000 words and account for 8 credits (4 each semester). The thesis will be evaluated by the faculty advisor. The Department will provide students with detailed guidelines for their thesis work.
  • The Thesis Workshops and Thesis will amount to 16 of the 32 credits required for the ASP. Students may utilise the remaining 16 credits to take up additional coursework in Sociology & Anthropology or in other fields of interest.
  • ASP students will also have the opportunity to gain experience as Teaching Assistants (with a minimum of 2 credits of Teaching Practicum).
  • The ASP cohort will also have the opportunity to organise an annual Symposium hosted by the department and conceptualised, curated and organised by the fourth-year students. 
Sociology/Anthropology Programme