Mughal emperors believed that they are the divinely-mandated rulers of the entire universe. This reflected in their imperial titles like Jahangir (Conqueror of the World), Shah Jahan (King of the World), and Alamgir (Conqueror of the Universe). However, how much power did they actually wield? How did they use paintings and architecture to articulate their grand visions of power? What role did war, diplomacy, ideology, and religion play in the process of imperial expansion? These are some of the questions we will engage with. This course offers a comprehensive introduction to Mughal history and historiography. We will explore how the legacy of Chinghiz Khan and Amir Timur Gurgan shaped the empire in South Asia. We will look into the ideals of masculinity that animated Mughal courtly etiquette and study the role of Mughal women in court society. We will investigate how the empire legitimised its rule, disciplined its elite, and created its fabled riches. Finally, we will study why such a huge and prosperous empire fragmented away in the eighteenth century.