How did armies fight in medieval and early modern South Asia? Who were the warrior ascetics and the armed peasants? What was the role of animals in war? How did issues of gender, environment, and culture relate to warfare? These are some of the questions this course addresses. It unravels military processes in South Asia between 1000 CE and 1800 CE in relation with broader social, political, and cultural processes. We will also study military matters related to technology, tactics, strategy, fortification, logistics, and military personnel. We will begin our journey in the early-11th century with the Chola kings of South India invading Southeast Asia and with North India facing Turko-Afghan invasions.We will stop at the end of the 18th century, with the English East India Company poised to become the dominant military power of the subcontinent. By the end of the semester, students will have a sound understanding of the workings of the world of war in medieval and early modern South Asia. In turn, this historical background will help students understand military and political processes of colonial and post-colonial South Asia better.